About Limestone DOWNLOAD

What’s a limestone?

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). It is formed by accumulation on the ocean floor of all kinds of shells and skeletons of marine animals over millions of years before our era, at a time when the surface area and volume of the oceans were much larger.

For instance, Limestone is the most common rock all around the Mediterranean basin, in France, Spain, Italy, Turkey, Israel, and Egypt.

Limestone is recognizable generally by the presence of fossils. It is the basis of many materials.

What’s a marble?

Marble is a metamorphic rock resulting from regional or at times contact metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks; limestone. This metamorphic process causes a complete re-crystallization of the original rock into an interlocking mosaic of calcite and dolomite crystals. The temperatures and pressures necessary to form marble usually destroy any fossils and sedimentary textures present in the original rock. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone.

What’s a travertine ?

Travertine is formed by calcium deposits on the vegetation (such as moss or algae), the emergence of certain sources or streams with small waterfalls. Carbonate precipitates due to water turbulence. Vegetation then pushes on the new frame, and the process begins again, in cycle. Travertine is a sedimentary rock a mainland limestone.

When pure it is white in color, but most often the dominant color tends toward gray, yellowish, reddish or brown, depending on the impurities.

This rock can indeed have small cavities called (vacuoles) that are unevenly distributed.

What’s an Igneous Rock?

The oldest type of all rocks is the igneous rock. Deep inside the earth, the temperature is very high and the minerals there are in liquid form called magma. As the magma pushes towards the earth's surface, it starts to cool and turns into solid igneous rock.

All igneous rocks do not cool the same way. Some cool slowly, deep under the earth's surface. These are called intrusive igneous rocks. The slow cooling formS rocks with large crystals. Granite is an example of a rock that cooled slowly and has large crystals.

Other rocks formed when the magma erupted from a volcano or reached the earth's surface through long cracks. Magma is called lava when it reaches the earth's surface. Lava cools quickly and forms rocks with small crystals. They are called extrusive igneous rocks. Basalt is an example of this type of rock.

What are the differences between these stone?

Limestone, marble and travertine have the same chemical properties but they have different physical properties. They are all sensitive to acid unlike granite and Lava yet they vary greatly in density and porosity.

Limestone is the only stone where you can see fossils. Marble has in general a lot of veins. Travertine on the other hand has small cavities.

Class and Durabilitye DOWNLOAD

As a natural product, limestone requires knowledge and understanding. Density, finish and how a stone is quarried all influence the final selection. The most common misconception about limestone is that it’s a soft stone. In reality, limestone can range from very hard to very soft. It should be chosen specifically for how it will be used in the final design, while taking aesthetic preferences into account.

A few benefits of limestone include:

  • Durability
  • Temperature and humidity control
  • Better traction and less porosity than many other stones
  • Neutral color and tones complement bold architectural features
  • Easy to clean and maintain

ASTM International (formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials) classifies limestone in three categories1:

Class I – Light Duty. Soft limestone best used for dimensional, thick cladding and carving. Most buildings in Paris use these types of stone.

Class II – Medium Duty. These stones can be used in cladding and residential flooring, as well as bath applications.

Class III – Heavy Duty. The French call this limestone « Pierres Marbrières », or literally, marble-like limestone. Comparable in hardness and porosity to harder marbles, these stones can be used in heavy commercial traffic applications (such as flooring) and kitchen countertops.

Getting it Right. A good example of how the right stone was chosen for the right building application is Le Louvre in Paris. While the original building was built with a soft limestone, Saint Maximin, the new extension interior is clad in a medium duty stone, Magny Doré. Also, its new interior flooring has a heavy duty limestone from the Chassagne quarry in France and able to withstand the foot traffic of 8 million visitors a year.

Project Management DOWNLOAD

Haussmann Natural Stone assists architects, designers and builders in all areas of managing their limestone and other select stones needs. This can include stone choice, sourcing, sizing, shipping, inspection and installation. Simply put we know how limestone fits into great architecture and design. The earlier we’re involved in the planning process, the more help we can be.

Material Selection. Haussmann has an eye for the unforeseen. We take the time to listen and understand your project before recommending and sourcing the right stone. Factors can be aesthetic, like color and texture, and practical, like application, cost and lead time. Choosing stone is a balancing act. We get it right the first time.

Quarry Factory. At Haussmann, we’ve spent years cultivating quarry contacts around the world and we work with only the best. We know them, how they work and what stones they’re best supplying and sizing. All our quarries understand and share our strict requirements. As a result, we maintain partnerships worldwide which benefit you in terms of limestone uniqueness, quality and price.

Cut to size. Haussmann is sometimes referred to as the "cut to size" company. It’s no accident. We work hand in hand with factories to remove the guesswork of sizing stone. We ask a lot questions. We have high expectations. Give us your blueprints and cad files. There’ll be a cut ticket to match.

Inspection. We have a time-tested system of quality control. Haussmann is on-site at limestone suppliers and factories more than any other distributor in the Bay Area. At some overseas quarries, we do our own product inspections in person. At others, we have trusted contract inspectors on payroll.

Shipping. The importance of good logistics can be overlooked – until it affects construction. If you’re investing in high-quality limestone, it should arrive promptly and in good condition. Our shipping agents are carefully screened and they know our product and requirements. We cut through red tape, deal with customs and arrange for safe delivery. All so you can concentrate on what you do best – design and build.

Installation. We can be often found at our client’s construction sites at the time of installation. It’s our way of being accountable for limestone, from design to project completion. Haussmann prefers to work closely with installers, first ensuring the right quantities are ordered and then focus on a project’s unique technical challenges. In this business, unforeseen obstacles are commonplace. We’re standing by with a creative solution.

Q&A DOWNLOAD

Can I have limestone for my kitchen/Bath?

Absolutely! Marble and limestone countertops have been used for centuries in Europe. Just keep in mind that limestone, like marble and travertine is a calcium-carbonate which will etch when in contact with acidic products. To help minimize staining and etching we recommend applying the appropriate stone sealer and re-applying when necessary.

What kind of stone can I put on the floor?

It depends on the application. Residential applications can use Class II or Class III stone for flooring and for commercial applications we recommend Class III stone only. In addition, for some commercial application, a slip resistance test may be required.

What kind of stone can I put outside?

All of our stones are suitable for exterior use in frost free climates. Residential applications can use Class II or Class III stone for flooring and for commercial applications we recommend Class III stone only. Class I, II and III stone can be used for wall cladding in both residential and commercial applications.

Can I have different stone on the same floor?

Yes. However if the stones selected are from two different stone classifications, they will wear differently.

Do I have to seal or maintain a stone for outside and inside?

Yes, we highly recommend sealing your stone when installed and thereafter as it’s needed different sealers apply to interior and exterior applications.

What stone sealer do you recommend?

There are plenty of great stone sealing products out there. Please consult with your installer or fabricator which product is best for your application. Also consult the stone care section for more details.

How often shall I re-seal the stone?

Every situation is different. Some applications require the stone to be re-sealed every year while other can go years before re-sealing. The best way to determine if your stone needs to be re-sealed is by doing a simple water test. Apply a small amount of water to the surface of the stone and let it sit for a 20 minutes. If the water seeps into the stone then the sealer has broken down and would need to be reapplied.

I live in a climate with frost and snow. What stone can I use that will be exposed to the elements?

Many of our stone are frost resistant. Specific installation guideline for reeze thaw climates are also necessary. Please consult with us in selecting the right stone for your project.

Do you fabricate/cut to size locally?

We do not fabricate or install. Under certain circumstances we’ll contract out for local fabrication/cut to size for small quantities and noncomplex items.

What if I like a stone but want a different finish than what is available in stock?

We can produce some specialty finishes locally in small quantities. However we prefer to work directly with the factories who are better equipped and not as costly.

What is the minimum quantity for a special order?

We require a minimum order of 350sf.

Is there anything I need to know before installing your stone?

We recommend cleaning the stone and then sealing it prior to grouting. Once the stone is installed and grouted re-seal the stone again. In most cases the stone will take two or more coats of sealer. Use white thin-set when setting the limestone. A good anti-fracture underlay is key for the longevity of the installed. In addition, exterior applications require waterproof membrane underlay.

Specifications General Product Information DOWNLOAD

Can I have limestone for my kitchen/Bath?

Absolutely! Marble and limestone countertops have been used for centuries in Europe. Just keep in mind that limestone, like marble and travertine is a calcium-carbonate which will etch when in contact with acidic products. To help minimize staining and etching we recommend applying the appropriate stone sealer and re-applying when necessary.

What kind of stone can I put on the floor?

It depends on the application. Residential applications can use Class II or Class III stone for flooring and for commercial applications we recommend Class III stone only. In addition, for some commercial application, a slip resistance test may be required.

What kind of stone can I put outside?

All of our stones are suitable for exterior use in frost free climates. Residential applications can use Class II or Class III stone for flooring and for commercial applications we recommend Class III stone only. Class I, II and III stone can be used for wall cladding in both residential and commercial applications.

Can I have different stone on the same floor?

Yes. However if the stones selected are from two different stone classifications, they will wear differently.

Do I have to seal or maintain a stone for outside and inside?

Yes, we highly recommend sealing your stone when installed and thereafter as it’s needed different sealers apply to interior and exterior applications.

What stone sealer do you recommend?

There are plenty of great stone sealing products out there. Please consult with your installer or fabricator which product is best for your application. Also consult the stone care section for more details.

How often shall I re-seal the stone?

Every situation is different. Some applications require the stone to be re-sealed every year while other can go years before re-sealing. The best way to determine if your stone needs to be re-sealed is by doing a simple water test. Apply a small amount of water to the surface of the stone and let it sit for a 20 minutes. If the water seeps into the stone then the sealer has broken down and would need to be reapplied.

I live in a climate with frost and snow. What stone can I use that will be exposed to the elements?

Many of our stone are frost resistant. Specific installation guideline for reeze thaw climates are also necessary. Please consult with us in selecting the right stone for your project.

Do you fabricate/cut to size locally?

We do not fabricate or install. Under certain circumstances we’ll contract out for local fabrication/cut to size for small quantities and noncomplex items.

What if I like a stone but want a different finish than what is available in stock?

We can produce some specialty finishes locally in small quantities. However we prefer to work directly with the factories who are better equipped and not as costly.

What is the minimum quantity for a special order?

We require a minimum order of 350sf.

Is there anything I need to know before installing your stone?

We recommend cleaning the stone and then sealing it prior to grouting. Once the stone is installed and grouted re-seal the stone again. In most cases the stone will take two or more coats of sealer. Use white thin-set when setting the limestone. A good anti-fracture underlay is key for the longevity of the installed. In addition, exterior applications require waterproof membrane underlay.

Stone Care DOWNLOAD

INSTALLATION

Because the purchase of Natural Stone for a home or commercial project represents a significant investment, proper installation is critical. To help ensure a successful installation, please take note of the steps outlined below:

  • Select your installer or fabricator with consideration and care. We also recom mend that you request referrals from previous clients before making your final decision.
  • Make sure your installer understands the special patterns or blending require ments that are part of the job. To ensure satisfactory results, we strongly recom mend blending all tiles before installation.
  • See that your installer reviews and understands any special installation procedures recommended for specific products.
  • For specific questions or accepted industry standards, please refer to the following sources:

Marble Institute of America

28901 Clemens Road, Suite 100 Westlake, Ohio 44145, Ph: 440-250-9222 www.marble-institute.com

Tile Council of America

100 Clemson Research Blvd. Anderson, SC 29625, Ph: 864-646-8453 literature@tileusa.corn

Stone Countertops

Natural stone can make an excellent surface for kitchen countertops, bars and lava- tory tops. The life and enjoyment of your natural stone countertop will be enhanced by observing a few simple procedures:

  • Always use a cutting board. Never cut directly on your counter.
  • Clean up liquid spills promptly.
  • Use a trivet or hot pad between the counter and very hot cookware.
  • Do not use heavy abrasive cleansers or cleaning pads. In addition, be aware that acidic materials such as lemon juice and vinegar can etch some stone surfaces, especially limestone, marble and Travertine with high porosity. And because normal wear and tear can affect even the most durable stone, you may experience some scratching and chipping over time.

Advisory regarding honed stone tile

Stone tile with a honed finish is a popular choice for flooring. Specific stones react differently to the honing process depending on the stone’s hardness and composi- tion. Some very hard stones may show slight swirl marks or unevenness in surface finish that may become apparent when the stone is exposed to reflective light. This is not considered a defect, but a natural characteristic of the stone. Please carefully inspect your purchase of honed stone tile before installation. If you find the finish unacceptable, please notify your Haussmann Natural Stone Sale Representative. No allowances or claims will be accepted for swirl marks or uneven finishing after installation.

Advisory regarding installing natural stone products in a shower

Haussmann Natural Stone recommends that the substrate beneath, and pertaining to, the tiling of shower walls and floors with natural stone products (tiles, mosaics and slab) has a waterproof membrane system installed prior to the installation of tile. No allowances or claims will be accepted for damage to natural stone products installed in a shower that does not have a waterproof membrane system installed.

Moisture barrier and antifracture membrane:

When stone is installed on a concrete slab at ground level, it is the responsibility of the buyer and installer to ensure that a proper moisture barrier is in place prior to installation.

Advisory regarding porous materials:

For porous materials such as Basalt some efflorescence and/or spotting from the setting material may occur during installation of thin (3/8”) tiles. Sealing the back of the tile prior to installation of the stone will help prevent such occurrence.

SEALING RECOMMENDATIONS

Sealing is an essential step in protecting the beauty and ensuring the longevity of a Haussmann natural stone product. We recommend sealing all natural stone products with a penetrating sealer, such as Stone Tech, Impregnator Pro. Please consult a Haussmann Natural Stone sales representative to find out which type of sealer product is appropriate for your material. In addition, we recommend sealing all porous non-polished stones (limestone, marble, travertine, etc.) prior to grouting. This prevents grout from staining or affecting the color of the stone. As part of a normal maintenance procedure, all Natural Stone products require re-sealing on a regular basis. Please consult the manufacturer of your sealer product to find out the timeframe for re-sealing based on traffic patterns and use.

Terra cotta tile should always be sealed with a penetrating sealer prior to grouting. As a normal maintenance procedure, terra cotta used as flooring requires re-sealing on a regular basis.

Please note: Haussmann Natural Stone provides recommendations for sealing prod- ucts as a service to consumers only. Haussmann Natural Stone does not warranty, and will not be responsible for any claims regarding sealers.

CONTINUING CARE AND CLEANING RECOMMENDATIONS

Stone is a natural product, and care should be taken to protect it from harsh abrasive cleaners and abrasive cleaning tools. While the right product for cleaning specific stones varies, we generally recommend Stone Tech products such as Revitalizer As with other flooring products, stone tile floors may require occasional professional cleaning to maintain or restore their natural appearance.

KEY TO USAGE GUIDE FOR NATURAL STONE PRODUCTS

Durability Codes

The following codes provide a general guide for the appropriate application of Haussmann Natural Stone products. Please discuss your specific application environ- ment with a sales representative before finalizing your selections.

Light Duty -

These stones are suitable for vertical applications and dimensional pieces with the exception of steam showers. They are not generally recommended for paving applications.

Medium Duty -

These stones are intended for use in all interior residential applications, including patio areas*, flooring and countertops**. These stone are also appropriate for many commercial applications such as light traffic*** interior flooring, exterior* and interior vertical applications.

Heavy Duty -

These stones are extremely hard, making them suitable for all light and medium duty applications as well as most interior and exterior* commercial applications. Recommended uses include heavy traffic*** residential and commer- cial flooring and other areas that require maximum durability.

* Some Medium and Heavy Duty stones cannot be used in exterior applications in areas that experience freeze/thaw conditions. Please consult the specification sheet for this information.

*** Some Heavy Duty stones may be subject to scratching or etching when used as countertops. Please see note about Stone Countertops located in the left column of this page.

* * * Light, Medium and Heavy traffic refer to pedestrian traffic only. If stone is to be installed in an area with vehicular traffic, please contact a Haussmann Natural Stone Sales Representative to inquire about thickness and installation requirements.

Variation and Uniformity Codes

Natural stones are products of nature, and no two pieces are exactly alike. All natural stones have unique natural variations and inclusions that are impossible to show in a photograph or sample. For this reason, all stone tile and slabs should be unpacked and inspected prior to installation, as Haussmann Natural Stone cannot accept claims for variation in any stone after installation.

A. Limited Variation - Stones in this category are relatively uniform in background color, veining and movement.

B. Moderate Variation - These stones exhibit some variation in background color, veining and movement. Blending these materials during installation is strongly recommended to ensure satisfactory results.

C. Wide Variation - Stones in this category exhibit a wide range of variation in color, veining and movement. Blending these materials during installation is required to ensure satisfactory results.